Tag: purina

The Effects of Diets on Neurological Health in our Canine & Feline Friends

Diets can have a huge effect on your pet’s body and long term health. They rely primarily on the amount of vitamins, Omega-3 fatty acids, and proteins present in their diets. Not only are these key ingredients important, but they can significantly increase your pet’s overall neurological health and, in theory, help prolong their life.

C18A5373Neurological health is vital to dogs and cats of all breeds and ages. A few symptoms to be aware of that typically come with age are problems with balance, loss of muscle mass, head tilt, difficulties walking, seizures, and weaker reflexes. These are all signs of possible underlying neurological issues and should be addressed sooner rather than later. We always want to be proactive instead of reactive (read more about our services and recommendations for senior pets here). An easy place to start is with a nutritiously balanced brain healthy diet.

Vitamins
The first key ingredients to look for when talking about your pet’s neurological health are vitamins. Lots and lots of vitamins! Most pet foods will already contain some vitamins, so be sure to check the label on your pet’s food so see what is included. But if you’re looking to use a separate supplement in addition to what is already in the food, be sure to check with your veterinarian about the concentrations beforehand.

Some Key Vitamins and Their Functions:
Vitamin A: Aids in optimal retinol function and skin improvement
Vitamin D: Used to help regulate phosphorus and calcium levels for optimal growth
Vitamin E: Used to help fight oxidation in cells, protect against heart disease, cataracts, and other various neurological diseases
Vitamin B1: Helps regulate thiamine levels
Vitamin B2: Responsible for metabolizing fats and carbs into energy
Vitamin B5: Also used in metabolizing energy
Vitamin B6: Responsible for glucose generation, healthy nervous system function, and hormone regulation
Vitamin B12: Helps aid in a healthy nervous system function, brain functions, and new cell growth

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Another key ingredient that is linked to neurological health in cats and dogs are Omega-3 Fatty Acids (aka “Lipids”). Fatty acids can be found primarily in marine sources such as phytoplankton or fish oil. Similar to vitamins, fatty acids have numerous health benefits.

sleeping old catThese benefits include: Modulating inflammation, aiding in fat soluble vitamin absorption, providing energy, promoting growth, promoting healthy skin and a healthy coat, and supporting joint and cartilage health.

Our beloved pets cannot provide the appropriate amount of fatty acids that their bodies require on their own. Omega-3 Fatty Acids are essential in overall health regardless of the neurological benefits.

Protein
The last key ingredient is protein. Proteins play several important roles in your pet’s body such as building and repairing muscles and tissues, along with growing new cells. The most common proteins are found in various meats, dairy products, some grains, legumes, and eggs. Our pets can store protein just like fat, so it is vital to supply it in their daily diets. Pets that are larger in size, or tend to be more active, may require a higher protein diet due to energy being used more frequently. The amount of protein needed varies depending on your pet’s lifestyle, breed, size, and activity levels.

That’s a lot of things to consider, we know. What happened to just picking up a bag of food? But feeding the correct diet is very important, especially when it comes to our older pets! Always be sure to read the labels and understand what your pet’s food contains. When in doubt, ask your veterinarian for their recommendations. There are several prescription and over the counter diets available for both dogs and cats that are formulated with neurological health in mind.

Canine Diets:
Purina Pro Plan Neurocare – Contains EPA, DHA, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and high protein levels. Can help treat idiopathic epilepsy along with medications, can also help treat Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome. For puppies, adults, and senior dogs. Dry formula only. Requires prescription. dvsdsv
Hill’s b/d Brain Aging Care – Contains antioxidants to help protect brain cells as well has support a healthy immune system. Has high levels of L-Carnitine to help preserve muscle mass. Also contains Omega-3 Fatty Acids for cell membrane health. Low sodium to help the heart as well. Dry formula only. Requires prescription. 
Royal Canin Mature Consult –
Powerful antioxidants neutralize free radicals, support brain function, and protect against cell aging. Also contains specialized amino acids to help maintain muscle mass. Available in both dry and canned formulas. Requires prescription.
Purina Pro Plan Bright Mind – Contains enhanced botanical oils to promote alertness and mental sharpness. EPA, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Glucosamine for joint care. Available for adults and seniors. Dry and canned formulas in various flavors available.
Purina Pro Plan Focus – High in protein and fiber. Contains Omega-3, Omega-6, as well as DHA for healthy brain development. Available for both puppies and adults. Dry and canned formulas in various flavors available.

Feline Diets:
Royal Canin Mature Consult –
Reduced phosphorus content to help with kidney function, L-Carnitine to help preserve muscle mass. ETA, DHA, EPA, and antioxidants. For sgsdgmature cats only. Available in both dry and canned formulas. Requires prescription.
Purina Pro Plan Focus Kitten – DHA for brain and vision development, rich in antioxidants for a healthy immune system. For kittens under one year old. Available in dry and canned formulas.
Purina Pro Plan Focus Adult – Omega-6, vitamins, linoleic acids for skin health. Antioxidants and natural fibers to help prevent hairballs. For cats one year and older. Dry and canned formulas in various flavors available.
Pruina Pro Plan Prime Plus – Formulated with vitamins and Omega-3s to help improve digestive health, support a healthy immune system, and to help maintain lean body mass. For cats 7 years and older. Dry and canned formulas in various flavors available.

old-boyAlways consult with your veterinarian first before switching your pet’s diet or adding on a supplement, especially if your pet has other health issues to consider. For example, pets that are having kidney issues or are in renal failure should not be on a high protein diet.

No one likes to see their pets get older, but there are things that you can do to help! Who would’ve thought something as simple as a diet change could make all the difference?

By: Cecilia Cardenas

Rebates, coupons, & savings – Oh my!

School is starting up soon! Which means new clothes for the kids, books, supplies, & everything else in between. That all adds up, plus the cost of your pet’s medications? Goodness! But not to worry! There are plenty of rebates, coupons, & deals going on to help you out. Take a look below & be sure to take advantage of these great programs.

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These are savings you can really sink your teeth into!

Zoetis Petcare Rewards

  • Eligible Products: Apoquel, Simparica, ProHeart6, Convenia, Revolution, Revolution Plus, Rimadyl
  • Purchases made in clinic or online through our VetSource are eligible
  • Purchases must be submitted within 60 days.
  • Each purchase you submit earns points. Once you have $10 worth of points, request your Visa Debit card to be mailed to you. This Visa card is re-loadable – so don’t throw it away once you’ve used it! Keep it to redeem your rewards faster!
  • This rebate card can only be used on purchases made at the clinic. But you can use it towards anything here- Exams, vaccines, more prevention, even treats & toys! Think of it as a gift card for us!
  • Please go to their website for full details, purchase minimums, & submission instructions.

Elanco Rebate Center

  • Eligible Products: Trifexis, Comfortis, Atopica, Galliprant, Interceptor
  • Purchases made in clinic or online through our VetSource are eligible
  • Please go to their website for full details, purchase minimums, & submission instructions.
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Ceva Pet Rewards

  • Eligible Products: Vectra 3D, Milbeguard, Feliway, Adaptil, Douxo shampoos
  • Only purchases made in clinic are eligible.
  • Rebates available for some items, free product available for others!
  • Please go to their website for full details, purchase minimums, & submission instructions.

Purina Pro Plan Veterinary Diets Coupon Center

  • Eligible Products: FortiFlora, Veterinary Diets dry or canned (example: EN or DM)
  • Coupons must be printed ahead of time & given to the front desk at time of invoice.
  • Available for both feline & canine versions of these products!

Hill’s Special Offers

  • While these are not for the prescription diets, we still wanted happy-dogto make sure that you know about these great offers from Hill’s! Take a look & print out the coupons that you need to use at the retailer you purchase your Hill’s from.
  • These are not eligible on the products that we carry in clinic.
  • Whenever we do have coupons for the prescription diets, we make sure that you get them & redeem them for you. Because every little bit helps!

BI (Merial) Animal Health Pet Rebate Center

  • Eligible Products: Heartgard, Nexgard, Frontline, Oravet Chews, & more!
  • Purchases made in clinic or online through our VetSource are eligible
  • While we don’t carry most of these in clinic, we still waned to make sure that you have the rebate information!
  • Please go to their website for full details, purchase minimums, & submission instructions.

If you ever need another copy of your invoice, or have any questions about these rebates just let us know!

By: Ashley Elliott

That Doggone Diabetes!

Diabetes is a condition brought on when an organ in the body, the pancreas, does not produce insulin. The concern here is that in order for the pet to metabolize sugar from their meals, they need insulin to help convert the sugars into a useful substance that the body can then absorb and utilize for energy. When this happens, the blood becomes overwhelmed with glucose (our energy supply), but without the insulin to make the glucose useful,  the body thinks it is starving – going into panic mode – and begins breaking down fats, stored starches, and proteins to feed all of the hungry cells. Now, while starches and proteins can be broken down in glucose for energy, fat breaks down into ketones. Detection of ketones on lab work show that there has been a large amount of fat breakdown, but a very serious complication, diabetic ketoacidosis, can occur as well from prolonged unregulated diabetes.

Pet-Diabetes-Signs-Web450x450Common signs you might start to notice in your pet and warrant a trip to see us would be excessive thirst, excessive urination, increased appetite, and weight loss.  Blood work helps us in diagnosing the condition by showing high glucose elevations in the blood and sometimes glucose being present in the urine, too. Glucose numbers can be falsely elevated in a stressed pet when they come to see us, so taking a thorough history and running blood work as well as urine helps us to accurately identify the condition vs. a pet that is just ready to go home from their vet visit!

Causes

  • Age. While diabetes can occur at any age, it mostly occurs in middle-aged to senior dogs. Most dogs that develop it are age 5 or older when diagnosed.
  • Gender. Un-spayed female dogs are twice as likely as male dogs to have diabetes.
  • Chronic or repeated pancreatitis. Chronic or repeated pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) can eventually cause extensive damage to that organ, resulting in diabetes.
  • Obesity. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance and is a risk factor for pancreatitis, which can lead to diabetes.
  • Steroid medications. These can cause diabetes when used long-term.
  • Cushing’s disease. With Cushing’s disease, the body overproduces steroids internally, so this condition also can cause diabetes.
  • Other health conditions. Some autoimmune disorders and viral diseases are also thought to possibly trigger diabetes.
  • Genetics. Diabetes can occur in any breed or mixed-breed, and it seems genetics can play a role in either increased or reduced risk. A 2003 study found that overall mixed-breeds are no less prone to diabetes than are purebreds. Among purebreds, breeds vary in susceptibility, some with very low risk and others with higher risk. Some that may be at higher risk include miniature Poodles, Bichon Frises, Pugs, Dachshunds, Miniature Schnauzers, Puli, Samoyeds, Keeshonds, Australian Terriers, Fox Terriers, Cairn Terriers, and Beagles.

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Types of Diabetes
Type I: Insulin dependent diabetes. A majority of the time, this is the type that of diabetes that dogs get – the pancreas stops producing the insulin so we must supplement the body with insulin to aid in proper metabolism of sugars.

Type II: Non-Insulin dependent diabetes. This is the type of diabetes that most cats will get. The pancreas produces some insulin but not enough to effectively metabolize the sugars, so we supplement with insulin and sometimes there is the potential that the pancreas in a cat can improve its insulin-secreting abilities and lead to remission.
Good glucose control and proper diet are beneficial – this can lead to a resolve in diabetes for some lucky cats, but unfortunately our canine companions are in it for the long haul with this being a maintained disease for the rest of their life. Ideally, cats should be fed a low carbohydrate, high protein diet, and dogs should be fed high fiber diets. Seeing as this could be tricky to formulate, we have diets specifically designed for diabetic pets that they can be switched to.

Treatment
At home care is usually the way we treat diabetes, teaching you how to administer thevesulin tiny amount of medication under your pet’s skin (subcutaneously) twice daily after a full meal. On occasion, a newly diagnosed pet that is doing poorly might spend some time with us while we get them regulated, but a majority of the time they get to go home the same day to start on their new routine.

We send you home with the selected insulin, syringes, and diabetic diet. You will need to feed a full meal every 12 hours and then administer the prescribed dose of insulin immediately after they have eaten. It is very important to set a schedule and stick to it!

IdealBloodGlucose_cat_lgRoutinely, a newly diagnosed pet will most likely need a few glucose curves to identify the dosage that they need to be on to effectively regulate their diabetes. This is done by having them stay with us for the day so we can take glucose measurements every 2 hours to see how they are utilizing their insulin. This is called a “curve” because if the insulin is working properly, the results will make a curve when graphed.

Once we get to a dose that is appropriate for your pet, we then monitor every 3-6 months with another curve and urinalysis to make sure we are staying on track and maintaining an accurate treatment for them. Of course, if there is a change in symptoms we see them right then and repeat testing when the problem occurs (feeling ill, losing weight, increase or loss of appetite, drinking/urinating excessively, disoriented/groggy).

by: Kaitie Barczak

VetSource – What’s that?

cat_fluffy_box_66380_1920x1200-700x437We all know that life can be chaotic at times. How often do you find yourself looking online to order something simply because you do not have the time to go to the store in person? There’s almost an online store for everything you could ever need nowadays. The same goes for your pet’s food, treats, toys, & even their prescriptions.

There are numerous places that you can order your pet’s supplies online, 1800PetMeds, chewy.com, even Amazon! While this is great & more than convenient, things get a little murky when it comes to prescription drugs, preventatives, & diets.

Given the growing impact that online pharmacies have had, it is our duty as your pet’s veterinarians to offer a safe place for you to order your pet’s prescriptions through. That’s where VetSource comes in.

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What is VetSource?

VetSource is the only industry-approved home delivery provider for your pet’s medications, foods, & other products. Their items come directly from the manufacturers, so you know exactly where your products have come from. While this may not be important for something like clothes or shoes that you’ve ordered online, it is absolutely crucial when it comes to prescriptions.

“Out of almost 12,000 websites that NABP (National Association of Boards of Pharmacy) reviewed, more than 95% of them operate out of compliance with pharmacy laws and practice standards that protect the public health.”
safe.pharmacy

When ordering from other places, the manufacturer cannot guarantee the authenticity of the product, that it was stored or handled properly, etc. So if there ends up being an issue with the product, the manufacturer isn’t able to help unless it was purchased through an authorized retailer. You’re then at the mercy of that site’s customer service department. This goes for human medications as well, not just pet products.

More options = Better medicine

While the safety of your pets is the primary reason we’ve decided to have a VetSource pharmacy, the wide array of available products was a close second. In clinic, we’re limited to what we can physically carry. If we decided to carry every brand of heartworm prevention there was, there would be no room for anything else in the clinic! But with VetSource, we’re able to offer medications, diets, preventatives, & other products that we would not be able to offer to you otherwise. We are also able to offer a wider variety of sizes on some products. Overall, this allows us to practice the best medicine that we can for your beloved pets.

All orders that contain a prescription item comes to us to approve before VetSource will ship it. This is to ensure that all of the information is correct: The product, size, quantity,  dosing instructions, & so on. This allows for us to approve a set number of refills for the item as well. Once we’ve approved it on our end, VetSource gets the green light to charge your card & ship out your items! You’re not charged until your item ships.

7820ae20aa9718218479f4e71147f410But wait, there’s more!

VetSource is able to offer discounts directly from the manufacturers. You can still receive rebates on your purchases on flea & heartworm prevention. There are even some discounts available on auto-shipped orders.

That’s right! You’re able to set up your pet’s prescriptions on an auto-shipping schedule. You place the order, select how often you would like for it to be shipped to your house, & that’s it! The product will ship out automatically for the amount of refills that it’s been approved for.

VetSource also offers a “Remind Me” program with your pet’s monthly preventatives. They will ship out a single dose of the preventative the same day of every month. This will come to you the same time every month & help as an added reminder to give the preventative. These have free shipping as well! You’re more than welcome to purchase full boxes if you would like, but this is a wonderful tool for those that need just a little extra help with remembering to give the product.

Most orders ship for free as well! Free shipping is offered on all diets, auto-ship orders, & on orders over $49.

Oh no – We’ve changed my dog’s food & I just placed an order!

That’s ok! Contact the VetSource customer service & they’ll be more than happy to help you out. They can help you change the product & also credit you back for anything that may have already been shipped out. Same goes for if your pet refuses to eat the food that was ordered. All Purina, Royal Canin, & Hill’s Science Diet foods have a 100% palatability  guarantee. If your pet, for whatever reason, declines to eat the food, you can get your money back. You don’t even have to go through the hassle of shipping the food back. You can either donate it to a shelter or dispose of it.

unleashed-paws-get-carded miniature-dachshund-in-a-mail-boxWhat if I don’t want to make an account?

No problem! We can process the order for you in clinic or over the phone. We can do a one-time order or set up auto-shipping for you. VetSource is designed to be an convenient as possible for our clients. However you want to do it, we can do it.

Does this mean I can’t purchase my pet’s ___________ from you anymore?

Not necessarily. However, this is the case with some products. Some products, such as Galliprant and Sileo Gel, are too expensive for us to carry in clinic. In some cases, VetSource is able to offer these products for less than we could.

We are working on downsizing the amount of food that we have on hand. So please be sure to call the clinic to check our stock before running out of food. The plan is to eventually only have the smaller bags of dry food & some cases of cans in clinic. Larger bags will eventually be discontinued in clinic & only available online for home delivery. This will allow for more room to have more options in clinic for your pet to try before ordering it online.

sBut not to worry! We make sure that any product that we decide to stop carrying in clinic is available through VetSource first! We also do our best to inform everyone about the decision ahead of time as well.

We’re very excited about this & we hope that you are, too! We want to offer the most for you & your pets. Check out our store & take a look around! You can also visit VetSource’s website for more information. If you have any questions or concerns, we’re happy to help!

By: Ashley Elliott

The Lowdown on Food Allergies & Diets

1Is your pet having ongoing skin or gastro intestinal issues with unknown causes? Have you exhausted all the other causes such as infection, parasites, or anatomy issues? Is your pet’s Veterinarian now recommending a food trial? If so, below is the lowdown on food allergies, what exactly a food trial is, how to properly execute a food trial, and what food options there are.

 What is a food allergy?

A food allergy is an immune system reaction that occurs after eating a certain food. Ingredients in pet food may be combined or changed into substances recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders to be attacked. The target of this attack include the gastrointestinal (GI) tract or other organ systems, but in dogs and cats it is the skin that most often suffers the most. The classical signs of food allergies in pets can be itchy lesions on the face, limbs, anal area, and ears. Some other symptoms are ongoing diarrhea and/or vomiting. Symptoms start when the pet is less than 6 months old or starts when the pet is older then 5-6 years old. Food allergies can develop even if a pet has been eating the same food for years with no issues. It takes time for them to develop the allergy. Symptoms do not happen seasonally like with airborne allergens, they are always present.  It is also noted that corticosteroids do not help with most food allergy issues.

The pet food companies have done a great job of advertising “grain free” diets, but unfortunately the pet usually is having a reaction to both the protein and/or carbohydrate in the diet. Grains are not bad for our pets. There is no simple test to see exactly what is causing the reaction. To solve the problem the culprit must be removed from the pet’s world. This is why we do food trials.

What is a food trial?

Before beginning a food trial we want to make sure all other possible culprits have been ruled out (parasites, infections, anatomy issues). If there is any secondary skin infection from the lesions, they must be cleared before starting the trial.

A food trial is when a hypoallergenic diet is fed for a period of time deemed by your Veterinarian. If the symptoms resolve, you then switch the pet back to its original food for 2 weeks to see if the symptoms return. If we see relapse, it is recommended to return to the food trial diet and staying on the food indefinitely.

There are no other ways to diagnose a food allergy. Blood tests are not helpful. Blood tests can detect antibodies against certain food proteins but this does not mean that the pet has an allergy. It could just mean the pet has eaten that type of protein before.

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What is involved in a food trial?

Food trials are VERY strict in order to see accurate results and everyone in the household must be on board with the instructions. This means the pet shouldn’t have any other protein sources besides the test protein. This includes rawhides, flavored chew toys, flavored chewable medications including heartworm/flea preventions, flavored vitamins, and all treats. Chewable medications will need to be switched to non flavored tablets/capsules and chewable heartworm/flea preventions may need to be switched to a topical brand.

As stated above, the pet is put on a hypoallergenic diet for at least 3 months. No other food/treats can be fed. If symptoms resolve then the pet is put back on their original diet for 2 weeks. If symptoms resume then we can diagnose a food allergy. The pet can then return to the hypoallergenic diet indefinitely. Some owners opt to not go back to the original diet because they do not want their pet to go through the horrible symptoms again. They will just continue the food trial diet indefinitely.

A food trial is very easy in that all you have to do is feed the hypoallergenic diet, but owners tend to find it hard to not feed other treats. Owners will state that the food trial failed, but in reality they were not being as strict as needed.

What are current food trial options?

There are three different types of diets that can be used in a food trial: a novel protein, hydrolyzed protein, or a home cooked diet.

Novel proteins are most commonly used in food trials. They are diets that contain a single protein source and single carbohydrate source. The most important part of choosing a novel protein, is that it has to be one that the pet has never come in contact with before. For example if you choose a venison and sweet potato diet, the pet must not have eaten either one of these protein/carbohydrates in any other food (treats, dry food, canned, etc). It takes years for a pet to become allergic to a food source, so the pet should not be allergic to something new. Pet food companies are starting to make a huge variety of flavors of food/treats, so it can be very hard to find a diet for the pet if the owner tends to feed a variety of different flavored food/treats.

Examples of novel protein diets include venison and potato, fish and potato, egg and rice, duck and pea, and even kangaroo. Several of these diets have been released to the public markets, so it is very important to choose ingredients for the trial that is not found in the pet’s regular diet. Public markets tend to sell these novel protein food for a lot less then Veterinary prescription diets, but they cannot guarantee that there are no additional proteins mixed in. Contamination easily happens because the machines are not thoroughly cleaned with each new batch of food made. Veterinary prescription diets can guarantee that the product does not contain any contaminants. The the machines are thoroughly cleaned/disinfected between batches of food. Most Veterinary prescribed diets have a 100 percent guarantee. This means that if the pet does not like the food, it can be returned for a refund.

Hydrolyzed proteins are diets that contain the smallest amount of molecules of a protein so that the body cannot detect them.  Basically, the immune system is tricked into no longer recognizing the protein so it does not trigger a reaction. The downside of hydrolyzed protein diets is that it is not as palatable as it would be with the protein in its original form. Examples of hydrolyzed protein diets include Hill’s Prescription Diet z/d, Purina HA HypoAllergenic Canine Formula, Royal Canin Veterinary Diet Canine Hypoallergenic. These diets also have a 100 percent guarantee. If the pet does not like the food, then it can be returned for a refund.

Home cooked diets are rarely used in food trial diets. It can be very inconvenient for the owner to have to cook the pets every meal and important vitamins/minerals are easily left out of the diet. If an owner wants to pursue a home cooked diet a nutritionist should be involved so that they can make a balanced diet for the pet. Recipes for appropriate diets can be purchased through BalanceIt, rpetdiets.com, or by any nutritionist listed at the American College of Veterinary Nutrition web site.

So how do you find out exactly what protein/carbohydrate the pet is allergic to?

2The process to find out what exact protein/carbohydrate a pet is allergic to is not a simple task but it can be done. It can be a very lengthy process. To do this, you add a single/pure protein source (such as cooked chicken, tofu, wheat flour or any other single food) to the test diet with each meal. If the pet begins to show allergic symptoms within two weeks, then that protein source causes an allergic reaction. You must return to the test diet until the allergic symptoms stops and then you can try another pure protein source. If no symptoms show after two weeks of feeding a test protein, then the pet is not allergic to that protein.

What if a diet is unsuccessful?

To determine if a diet was truly unsuccessful we need to make sure the owner was 100 percent compliant (meaning they only fed the test food), parasites are under control, infections are under control, and that the food trial was done for long enough time. If all those boxes are checked, then it is strongly suggestive that an inhalant allergy is the culprit. If this is the case, biopsies by dermatologist is recommended.

By: Jamie McAfee

Sources:
Brooks, Wendy C. “Food Allergies.” Veterinary Partner, 2001,      http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=A&S=0&C=0&A=652

H, Heidi. “Royal Canin Veterinary Diet® Canine Selected Protein Adult PR Dry Dog Food.” Canine Selected Protein Adult PR Dry Dog Food | Royal Canin Veterinary Diet, 10 Aug. 2015,  http://www.royalcanin.com/products/royal-canin-veterinary-diet-canine-selected-protein-adult-pr-dry-dog-food/1396

“Allergy – Food Allergy in Dogs.” vca_corporate, vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/allergy-food-allergy-in-dogs

Clinical Nutrition Team. “What Every Pet Owner Should Know about Food Allergies.” Clinical Nutrition Service at Cummings School, 30 Jan. 2017, vetnutrition.tufts.edu/2017/01/food-allergies

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